Posts Tagged ‘Jesus Seminar’


With each new passing or announcement of retirement from the progressive theological movements I share with my wife, we ask, who will take up the torch?  And no, Rob Bell is not the answer or the Emergent Church movement. Yes, they are doing good things in pushing boundaries in their traditions, but compared to where Labour Church, Social Gospel, Creation Spirituality, Progressive Christianity, Liberation Theology, Feminist Theology, Queer Theology, Truth and Reconciliation resonances, Human Rights, Social Justice, New Thought, Metaphysics, Jesus Seminar, Philosophy, history, Anthropology, Sociology, Psychology, science and ecumenical dialogues (to name but a few) have brought us, they are reinventing the foundation stones, instead of adding new floors to the towers already standing tall and strong.

I have been trying lately due to some health challenges of the holistic being to reclaim the towers, and not have to reinvent the foundation stones (I am stubborn that way). After the first night of decent rest in months it hit me, that part of continuing to build the towers is to go to your own spiritual roots.  Within myself, and my family those roots are the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Testament. I will be the first to admit, the Hebrew Bible can at first blush appear to contain stories of hate, genocide, blood lust and horror. They are foundation myths and legends of their time speaking to the people then and what they had gone through. The challenge for us is not to take a 21st century lens back to the historical story, but rather bring the story into a 21st century lens.

Huh?

A 21st century lens pushes these stories to obscurity, or that which should not be spoken about.

Yet bringing the story into a 21st century lens allows us to see what we have missed and continued to repeat due to our literal, fundamentalist or non-reading of the text.

This is one of the things that struck me as I sipped on my fourth cup of morning coffee. It pertains to the horrid collection of laws found in the Third book of the Torah (or Pentateuch for those Greek types), Leviticus.

Really these are laws about how to keep yourself alive, don’t spark wars with your neighbours and by bringing the story into the 21st century lens that abuse shall not happen without consequence (as seen with the hard passages around abuse of women in Leviticus 19:29:

c“Do not profane your daughter by making her a prostitute, lest the land fall into prostitution and the land become full of depravity.

(English Standard Version)

            For me speaks directly to the abolishment of the Sex Trade. All of us are either children of someone’s daughter, or have a daughter, and forcing anyone to do what they choose not to do, or to make profit from the dehumanization of another is reprehensible evil.

This method also brings a different reading into those infamous few of Leviticus 18:22-23:

22 hYou shall notlie with a male as with a woman; it is an abomination. 23 i And you shall not lie with anyanimal and so make yourself unclean with it, neither shall any woman give herself to ananimal to lie with it: it is jperversion.

(English Standard Version)

 

These texts have nothing today with the LGBTTQ2+ community. They are a direct redaction into what is legendarily believed to be the writings of Moses post exile from Babylon. In Babylon, the free and slave were forced into sexual predatory worship within the temple. It was led by the Clerics and to show worship after providing the usual animals and money forced participation for absolution was found in sexual penetration through varied orifices of animals, and/or human beings by the worshipper or with the Cleric (yes historical anthropological context can be disturbing).

But wait…removing the literal sentiment, what type of warning does this sound like for the people?

That your worth as you are created matters.

Do not let one in authority force you to that which you do not want to do.

When one in power forces you under the auspices of atonement, absolution, because God said, because you will make first line, I will ensure you get an A, you will get the role only if you….

Hidden in a text we have argued over a literal understanding of, we have missed a millenniums long warning of metaphor and allegory going:

Children,

You were abused in captivity, and were not allowed to flourish healthily into the true you. Do not repeat this pattern of abuse. Be the ones that shatter the cycle, know that you are loved, equal, and belong together in loving communities, loving relationships with whomever you choose.

BUT (and this one is important) you must choose the path of new and love, not the path of known hurt and abuse.

I implore you as you lick the wounds of leaving slavery and abuse, PLEASE, speak the truth, then CHOOSE to move forward as a healthy community by throwing off the monsters and casting them out.

Choose L-I-F-E.

Choose L-O-V-E.

Amazing what happens when you contemplate deeply into the Holy Mystery and attempt to answer the WTF as to why this passage exists.

So as community in the Christianities, are we going to answer the Levitical warning and:

           Choose L-I-F-E?

           Choose L-O-V-E?


I have to admit I will miss the new books by this theologian. He was one whose teachings/writings shaped my understanding of faith while I was still involved in traditional/mainstream Christendom. I discovered Borg during my years in Bible College, around the same time I discovered the Jesus Seminar, and his compatriot John Dominic Crossan and others such as Matthew Fox (in Seminary), and well for John Shelby Spong and Desmond Tutu I would have to go back to my Confirmation within the United Church of Canada at 19 years of age.

But Marcus Borg’s work truly resonated in my Franciscan Charism as he brought to the forefront the use of Social Sciences, most notably Sociology and Anthropology in the understanding of the ancient texts, and who Jesus of Nazareth was. Borg held to a  Progressive Christian Understanding, and yes his works such as First Christmas and Last Week shaped a deeper understanding for the Nativity Story and Easter. His other works such as Reading the Bible again for the First Time, Jesus, etc. shaped a deeper understanding of how to approach sacred texts and historical figures within their proper contexts.

Sadly, Borg will not be the only theological giant of free thought that will transition in the next few years as these great thinkers age, but I will direct the reader unfamiliar with this man to the last volume of his I picked up “Convictions” that truly looked at faith, reason and life. I would also challenge the reader to look at whatever their sacred texts are or beliefs in a deeper mysticism, and anthropological context.


Introduction

             Entering once more into the study of hermeneutics as one that once taught the subject brought back memories of dry and/or inaccessible tomes that left little of use except perhaps as a doorstop or insomnia aid. What greeted online was a simple twenty-five page workbook that was not only accessible to the student, but also practical for the preacher or teacher. This simple work starts with the concept of what hermeneutics is to how the disciple of Christ should apply it to their ministry. Let us enter once more into the hermeneutical spiral first with a summary, then an interpretation before the ending of whether or not this is a useful resource.

Summary

            Hermeneutics is the method one uses to interpret literature of the past (p.1) and as such it is (p.1):

  • A science because it is guided by rules within a system.
  • An art due to how the rules are applied.
  • Applied by skill and not mechanical imitation.

This is what hermeneutics is, and why it exists you ask? Primarily for two reasons (p.1):

  • The scriptures show us God has spoken.
  • Because God has spoken we require a reliable way to interpret scripture.

This is the genesis that leads into how one can come to be an interpreter of the Bible. The challenge then as one works through the sections of the workbook is to take the Bible in hand and work through a passage with these tools. The tools you ask?

The 3 questions that are to be answered from page 3:

  • What is the prevailing view respecting scripture?
  • What is the main method of interpretation?
  • What qualifications were regarded as essential in an interpreter of the Bible?

These three questions lead the journeyer into what the workbook stipulates as a qualified interpreter (which will be explored in the interpretation section of this paper). The author(s) who remain unknown then lays out the principles of interpretation (again, will be outlined in the interpretation section of the paper).

The workbook also outlines common mistakes of provincialism and traditionalism (p.3) for the interpreter and the five basic schools: (a) allegorism; (b) literalism; (c) devotionalism; (d) liberalism; and (e) neo-orthodoxy (p 4-5).  All are good components to the whole as an introduction it provides a broad tent in a short span of time for equipping the teacher.

Interpretation

            But why does hermeneutics exist? Surely, the revelation that is needed to understand scripture comes from the Holy Spirit? Yes this is true. But as the old saying goes, God did not place the gray matter between our ears just to keep our heads from caving in, God expects us to come to a deeper understanding. It is this understanding that lends itself to what the workbook stipulates is the qualifications of an interpreter and then the principles of interpretation.

According to the workbook a valid interpreter needs to be qualified by (p.3):

  • Being born again in accordance with the doctrine taught in John 3.
  • Have a passion for and know God’s word.
  • A Deep reverence of God.
  • Possess an utter dependence upon the Holy Spirit.

These qualities one may say then discredits the science and art that is hermeneutics, but it does not. For being born again truly is the acknowledgement of the Holy within us, but also the need for divine love. The passion and knowledge of the scriptures will allow someone to further discover history, geography, culture, genres, languages and customs of the peoples of the Bible, but also within the diverse Body of Christ today.

It is the reverence of God that allows us to see the true beauty within the scripture regardless whether you approach the Bible as the Jesus Seminar does or as a Fundamentalist King James Bible Baptist preacher for the reverence will lead you to your knees to allow for the Holy Spirit to open up your soul.

Now it is known what qualifies one, what are some guiding principles? (a) priority of original languages; (b) accommodation for revelation; (c) progressive re-evaluation; (d) historical propriety; (e) awareness of ignorance; (f) differentiating interpretation from application; (g) checking principle[1]; (h) induction; (i) preference for the clearest interpretation; (j) upholding the unity of scripture; and (k) analogy of the faith (p. 9-11). These are coupled with word studies within the original language and ensuring one interprets for the correct genre that the certain book is written in (p.11).

The ideal that these principles guides one to when coming to the scriptures is humility. That is an understanding that as an interpreter it is not us alone that holds the meaning, it is through collaboration with others upon the journey (believer or non), but also full collaboration with the Holy Spirit in the Tri-unity with the Godhead. That is the key principle that all these lead to.

The interpretation is not done in isolation.  The principle of induction lends the interpreter to discover the true meaning of the passage not to place a meaning upon it. The interpreter is not a lone wolf crying at the moon, they are a link in an ever flowing chain to discern truth. There is the strong reminder that there may be one interpretation for a piece of scripture, but many applications (p.10). Is this a true statement or just a straw man argument? As one explores the many faceted sides of the Christianities it becomes evident that there can actually be multiple interpretations, just think of the way Coptic or Orthodox or Catholic or Pentecostal Christians will approach understanding the Holy Spirit and His work within the church, as well as his role in the Godhead. To be crass the fact there is an Eastern and Western Nicene Creed shows that there is at least a dual understanding of how the Holy Spirit relates to the Godhead with the West stipulating of the same substance while in the East the Holy Spirit is created by God & Jesus. This in itself makes the principle of one interpretation, many applications faulty.  Although this short exploration is not for a student new to hermeneutics which these principles allow for a foundation to begin a proper exploration of the texts by the Interpreter.

Now the beauty of hermeneutics is that it encompasses a multi-disciplinary approach to understanding for it takes into account literature review; art; culture; anthropology; sociology; theology; doctrine; history; geography; etc to create a fully defined picture of where in history the story is placed.  Doctrine is a principal sticking point for unity within the faith, and even within the scriptures. Doctrine can allow for understanding within one’s own tradition of Christianity, but is problematic when one tries to dialogue in regards to some tenants of the faith with other traditions.

Doctrine as a principal illuminates the two challenges written of earlier being provincialism and traditionalism. Provincialism in and of itself is an insulated and narrow focus based around one’s own experience, while traditionalism sticks to the ideal of “we have always done it this way” theory of experiencing the world. Either or both of these when brought into the hermeneutical spiral can prove disastrous for allowing the revelation of the Spirit, but also the step of checking points when scripture crosses over into secular disciplines.

This leads us to the ideal of language preferences. One is to lean on the original languages of the texts as the purest source. Yet historically what exist for the texts of the Bible are not the original autographs, but copies, which is fine as archaeologically there is stronger proof of the veracity of the documents than any other. However even the original autographs in a time of oral tradition are they the most valid. Okay a rather circular argument, there is a rationale for the early languages which is plausible but in the inability to hold to the original languages if one can have at least three distinct translations available to read the passages within and compare word choices it can aid coming to that original meaning.

All these principles in spite of the hiccups and challenges are meant to enable the interpreter to place the story in time. Once the story has been placed in time then the interpreter can truly open themselves up to the moving of the revelation of the Holy Spirit. This is the heart of hermeneutics.

Conclusion

             Hermeneutics is simply the process of interpreting ancient literature. It is both an art and a science that is guided within the interpreter’s heart, soul, body and mind by the Holy Spirit to come to a conclusion on meaning. This meaning is not in isolation, it stands on the shoulders of history, while also entering into life within the current breathing Body of Christ.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reference

Sacred Hermeneutics retrieved from        https://ntsmoodle.com/file.php/9/Sacred_Hermeneutics.pdf  26 September 2012.

 


[1] This is to ensure that secular studies are checked if the passage borders on matters of science or history; double checking doctrinal documents to keep interpretation within the rule of faith; and great expositor’s of the past.

 


The answer is…

NEITHER

As much as I would like to sit here and say that the Conservative or fundamentalist Christianities were dying and at death’s door…they are not.

Nor can one stipulate that the liberal branches are.

This is the sticky point as some will say, surely you jest writer, just look at the numbers of people leaving in droves, the building sell off, congregation closings…except that is the traditional-conservative-fundamentalit structures that the new inclusive Christianities are stepping out of.

You see, the buildings may go away, traditional style congregations and positions may fade… yet there is a movement of faithful through works, through devotion to fellowship and through syncronicity of faith, holy stories and called to vocation and learnings… that are not quantifiable by any stretch of the imagination.

So unfortunately to the screaming headlines, and butts in pew counters out there, neither of broad tents of the Christianities will go away… why?

Like all other forms of spirituality, ideology, and religion… each of the veins of Christianities draws different individuals into the Holy Mystery.

The question shouldn’t be who the winner will be…

The question needs to be… how do we work together to create the just reign of God here on Earth that Christ called us too in the Gospels?